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burj khalifa steel structure

... Dubai’s Burj Khalifa marks 11th anniversary. Its height, its unique architecture and all of the records it has broken. At the top, the central core emerges and transitions to a special steel framed structure which is sculpted to form a finished spire. Burj Khalifa – the Steel Gargantuan in the Middle of the Desert Home » Blog » Burj Khalifa – the Steel Gargantuan in the Middle of the Desert access_time March 8, 2016 August 5, 2020 account_box Svet folder_open U.A.E. Installed at the very top of this iconic structure, Tata Steel's ComFlor® 80 composite floor decking has played a part in making this engineering monument possible. This design is supposed to resist the strong desert heat and solar rays better (see Fig. "The Design and Construction of the World's Tallest Building: The Burj Khalifa, Dubai." The shape and the upward setbacks help the structure to reduce the wind forces that is acting on the structure. Hong Kong-based Far East Aluminum combined to provide the exterior cladding for Burj Khalifa. - 3.7m Structural System Material. The Burj Khalifa employs a ‘Y’ shaped floor plan. While moving up along the tower, one wing at each tier is set back. The central pinnacle pipe weighs 350 tonnes (390 short tons; 340 long tons) and has a height of 200 m. The spire also houses communications equipment. Emaar Properties PJSC is the Master Developer of Address Hotels and Resorts, Chat with us between 8.00 AM to 9 PM (GST), أحدث أخبار فيروس كورونا المستجدّ: مرحباً بكم مجدداً في برج خليفة، سلامتكم هي في مقدّمة أولوياتنا. Types of Drawings Prepared by Structural Engineers, Economical Design of Reinforced Concrete Columns to Reduce Cost, Types of Concrete Pavements -Their Construction Details and Applications. There are corridor walls that extend from the central core to the end of the wing. The structure consists of 26 terraces. Burj Khalifa facts page. The shape was finally fixed based on the series of wind tunnel tests. Why Select Reinforced Concrete as Construction Material for a Structure? Famous as a mixed-use development tower with a total floor area of 460,000 m 2, it includes residential, hotel, commercial, office, entertainment, shopping, and leisure establishments. Mat foundation Concrete structure Structural System Material. LAKE FRONT PROMENADE 6. 8). Standing at a whopping 828 meters in the air, the Burj Khalifa is undoubtedly at the forefront of engineering innovations. The structure is located in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Photo © Nick Merrick | Hedrich Blessing Rising 828 meters over the desert metropolis of Dubai, the Burj Khalifa tower is the world's tallest structure. As this drawing sequence from SOM illiterates, the steel was lifted and erected by a crane and derrick that was attached to the concrete core. Samsung C&T built the tower in a joint venture with BESIX from Belgium and Arabtec from the UAE. VIP members get additional benefits. This utilized polymer slurry to carry out the process. A young’s modulus of 43800N/mm2 is said to be granted by the C80 concrete. Sorry, you do not have permission to ask a question, You must login to ask question. The C80 and C60 cube strength concrete is used incorporating fly ash, Portland cement, and the local aggregates. So, the concrete pouring process was carried out at night at a cooler temperature. The tower superstructure of Burj Khalifa is designed as an all reinforced concrete building with high performance concrete from the foundation level to level 156, and is topped with a structural steel braced frame from level 156 to the highest point of the tower. 57 Elevators will move occupants around. The structure is 828m tall and the whole system is a reinforced concrete tower structure. The spire alone is composed of more than 5000 tonnes of the structural steel. Its reinforced concrete structure makes it stronger than steel-frame skyscrapers. This was the first attempt in world history to have such a large height for structures. In March 1996, Petronas Towers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia broke the Sears Tower’s record as the world’s tallest office building. The world’s tallest building, Burj Khalifa took 6 years for its construction and was inaugurated on 4th January 2010. 504 Metres is how high the Burj Khalifa’s main service lift travels, the most of any elevator. The Burj Khalifa is undoubtedly one of the most recognisable architectural monuments in the world. Fig.3: Pile Raft Foundation in Burj Khalifa. There are perimeter columns which are connected to the mechanical floors. Every batch was tested before placing. 28,261 glass panels, each individually hand-cut, were used in … اطّلعوا على مزيد من التفاصيل حول. Structural System Description. The concrete volume used in the raft is 12,500 meter cube. The piles were 1.5m in diameter and have a length of 43m. From an initial concept through completion, a combination of several important technological innovations and innovative structural design methods have resulted in a superstructure that is both efficient and robust. At 2,716.5 ft. (828 m), the equivalent of a 200-story building, Burj Khalifa has 160 habitable levels, the most of any building in the world. The Burj Khalifa is over 828 meters high, making it the tallest building in the world. © 2009-2020 The Constructor. With a total built-up area of 5.67 million square feet, Burj Khalifa features 1.85 million square feet Turner was the project manager on the main construction contract. To reduce the detrimental effects of chemicals, cathodic protection where provided under the raft. The tower construction itself costs $4.2billion. Dubai: The Burj Khalifa is one of the most iconic buildings in the world. The Burj Khalifa is the world’s tallest structure with a height of 828 m and has a total of 163 floors. As the temperature of the location (Dubai) is very high, there were chance of cracks due to shrinkage. The grade of concrete raft is C50 which was self-consolidating concrete. The crowning touch of Burj Khalifa is its telescopic spire comprised of more than 4,000 tons of structural steel. To have the tallest building in the world in your project portfolio is something special. The structural system employed for Burj Khalifa can be called as the Buttressed Core System. The high-performance concrete used in Burj Khalifa guarantee low permeability and higher durability. Web. Structural Engineering International 25.4 (2015): 389-94. Burj Khalifa has "refuge floors" at 25 to 30 story intervals that are more fire resistant and have separate air supplies in case of emergency. VIP members get additional benefits. … Also See: GeoTechnical Engineering Each wing buttresses the other through a hexagonal central core as shown in figure-2. It’s three times … Country The tower took 22 million man hours to build. This area is utilized for 700 residential apartments located from 45 to 108 floors. The ... and 15,500 square metres of embossed stainless steel. Sign Up to The Constructor to ask questions, answer questions, write articles, and connect with other people. The connection between the perimeter columns and the mechanical floors is provided by means of outrigger walls. The largest concrete pumps in the world were used to pump concrete to height up to 600 m at a single stage. This structural system enables the building to support itself laterally and keeps it from twisting. Burj Khalifa in Dubai, United Arab Emirates is the world’s tallest building – it is an astounding 828 metres tall (2,717 feet). Burj Khalifa’s exterior-cladding system is designed to withstand the UAE’s summer temperatures. Become VIP Member. Adrian Smith is the man behind the structural and the architectural design of Burj Khalifa. Photos From the Construction Stage. The crowning touch of Burj Khalifa is its telescopic spire comprised of more than 4,000 tons of structural steel. Stainless Steel ceilings, 73.5 meters (241 feet) long, placed on top of 88-storey towers brought their height to 451.9 meters (1,482 feet 8 inches). Other Names. Burj Khalifa, the tallest architectural building. Please enter your email address. The number of piles used were 194. ... construction with a floor system of concrete planks or concrete slab on top of steel beams is still considered a “steel” structure as the concrete elements are not acting as the primary structure. The structure is more designed for wind force and related effects. Lost your password? The spire was constructed from inside the building and jacked to its full height of over 200 metres (700 feet) using a hydraulic pump. The top section of the Tower consists of a structural steel spire utilizing a diagonally braced lateral system. The central core has a higher resistance towards the torsional resistance. The basic structure is a central hexagon core with three wings, which is clustered around it, as shown in figure-2. steel structure from level 156 to the top Structural system description. Burj Khalifa utilised a record-breaking 330,000 cubic metres of concrete; 39,000 tonnes of steel reinforcement; 103,000 square metres of glass; and 15,500 square metres of embossed stainless steel. These walls resist the wind shears and moments by acting like the web and the flanges of the beams. This help to resists higher wind loads laterally. BURJ KHALIFA ARRIVAL COURT 2. Fig.2: Cross Section plan of Burj Khalifa. The 280,000-square-meter skyscraper contains office, residential, and retail space, along with a Giorgio Armani hotel. This raft is in turn supported by bored reinforced concrete piles. 163 levels, 829.8 metres tall, a benchmark for skyscrapers - the Burj Khalifa is a triumph of human ingenuity. It is an understatement to say that Burj Khalifa represents the state-of-the-art in building design. The raft has a thickness of 3.7m and was constructed in four separate pours. The outrigger depth is three storey heights. Ice was added to the concrete mix to facilitate the desired temperature. The basic structure is a central hexagon core with three wings, which is clustered around it, as shown in figure-2. Login to The Constructor to ask questions, answer people’s questions, write articles & connect with other people. ARMANI HOTEL ENTRY 3 11 3. The spire was constructed from inside the building and jacked to its full height of over 200 metres (700 feet) using a hydraulic pump. Structural System Material The tower superstructure of Burj Khalifa is designed as an all reinforced concrete building with high performance concrete from the foundation level to level 156, and is topped with a structural steel braced frame from level 156 to the highest point of the tower. Burj Khalifa. VIEWING DECK 7 5. This is nearly 200 feet taller than the second tallest building in the world – the Shanghai Tower in Shanghai, China. There is periodic encounter of outrigger system through the height of the tower. Remaining spaces is till the 160th floor is occupied by the corporate officers. The structural features include: The tower comprises 2,80,000 m2 area. The total weight of aluminium used on Burj Khalifa is equivalent to that of five A380 aircraft, and the total length of stainless steel ‘bull nose’ fins is 293 times the height of the Eiffel Tower in Paris. Burj Khalifa (Arabic: برج خليفة ‎, "Khalifa Tower") is an extremely tall skyscraper in Dubai, United Arab Emirates named after Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan, and is the tallest building ever built, at 828 metres (2,717 feet).Before the building opened, it was called Burj Dubai.The building is 162 stories high. Become VIP Member, Do you need to remove the ads? Construction of the tower was started in 2004. The structural steel spire was designed for gravity, wind, seismic and fatigue in accordance with the requirements of AISC Load and Resistance Factor … The spire of Burj Khalifa is composed of more than 4,000 tons of structural steel. All Rights Reserved. The structural features of Burj Khalifa is explained in the following section. The world's tallest artificial structure is the 829.8-metre-tall (2,722 ft) Burj Khalifa in Dubai (of the United Arab Emirates).The building gained the official title of "tallest building in the world" and the tallest self-supported structure at its opening on January 9, 2010.The second-tallest self-supporting structure and the tallest tower in the world is the Tokyo Skytree. The total project cost is estimated to be US$20billion. Other names the building has commonly been known as, including former names, common informal names, local names, etc. The spire of Burj Khalifa is composed of more than 4,000 tonnes (4,400 short tons; 3,900 long tons) of structural steel. The concrete grade used in piles where C60 SCC concrete which were placed by tremie method. 5500 KG is the carrying capacity of the service lift. The structural elements used and their amount is mentioned below: Adrian Smith is the man behind the structural and the architectural design of Burj Khalifa. This plan provide higher performance and provides a full view of the Persian Gulf. The central pinnacle pipe weighs 400 tonnes and has a height of nearly 700 ft and the spire also has the communication equipments. label Asia , Burj Khalifa , Dubai , Infstrastructure , Miracle , Technology , Travel , UAE remove_red_eye 12474 Views Select a country…Åland IslandsAfghanistanAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelauBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBoliviaBonaire, Saint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBritish Virgin IslandsBruneiBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongo (Brazzaville)Congo (Kinshasa)Cook IslandsCosta RicaCroatiaCubaCuraÇaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland IslandsFaroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and McDonald IslandsHondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIranIraqIsle of ManIsraelItalyIvory CoastJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKuwaitKyrgyzstanLaosLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacao S.A.R., ChinaMacedoniaMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMarshall IslandsMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMicronesiaMoldovaMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNetherlands AntillesNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorth KoreaNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinian TerritoryPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarRepublic of IrelandReunionRomaniaRussiaRwandaSão Tomé and PríncipeSaint BarthélemySaint HelenaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (Dutch part)Saint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSan MarinoSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia/Sandwich IslandsSouth KoreaSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyriaTaiwanTajikistanTanzaniaThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited Kingdom (UK)United States (US)UruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVaticanVenezuelaVietnamWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaWestern SamoaYemenZambiaZimbabwe, By registering, you agree to the Terms of Service and Privacy Policy .*. Structural Details of Burj Khalifa – Concrete Grade and Foundations, High Performance Concrete Used in Concrete, Proprietary Trench Support Systems Used in Construction, The Four Generations of High Rise Building Construction, Collapse of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge: A Case Study, Point Pleasant Bridge Disaster: Collapse of the Eyebar-Chain Suspension Bridge, Curtain Walls = 83,600sq.m of glass and 27,900 sq.m of metal. The spire was constructed from inside the building and jacked to its full height of over 200 metres (700 feet) using a hydraulic pump. The 828-metre Burj Khalifa is provided with a spire of 244 meter which is also termed as Burj khalifa of its own. You will receive a link and will create a new password via email. Over 400 tons of structural steel Structural pipes up to 1200 mm (47 inches) in diameter ... • Baker, Bill, and James Pawlikowski. The superstructure of Burj Khalifa is supported over a large reinforced concrete raft. Two numbers of this type of pump was used. The tower was constructed by Samsung C&T from South Korea, which also did work on the Petronas Twin Towers and Taipei 101. Burj Khalifa is built of concrete with a jump-form system, up to level 156, where the tower is constructed of structural steel. To withstand the excessive pressure caused due to the building weight, special concrete mixes were employed. This reason made the designers to employ one of the best and latest technology and innovative structural design. The structure of Burj Khalifa was designed to behave like a giant column with cross sectional shape that is a … While moving up along the tower, one wing at each tier is set back. This makes decreasing cross section when moving up. Developed by Dubai-based Emaar Properties PJSC, Burj Khalifa rises gracefully from the desert and honors the city with its extraordinary union of art, engineering and meticulous craftsmanship. Upon visiting the tower one must pass through one of three entrance pavilions, constructed by Waagner Biro Steel and Glass, through to the elevators to reach the upper floors. The tallest building in the world was inaugurated on January 4, 2010. At the end, these walls are thickened by means of hammer walls. This makes decreasing cross section when moving up. Each pile has a capacity of 3000 tons. The structure of Burj Khalifa was designed to behave like a giant column with cross sectional shape that is a reflection of the building massing and profile. RESIDENTIAL ENTRY 4. The exterior cladding of Burj Khalifa is made of reflective aluminum and textured stainless steel spandrel panels with numerous small tubular fins. 31,400 Tonnes of rebar were used in the structure of Burj Khalifa. The crowning touch of Burj Khalifa is its telescopic spire comprised of more than 4,000 tons of structural steel. Construction data, photos and information about the project, other skyscrapers of similar height inside and outside of the UAE ... Steel structure timetable by Fury . commitment to cleanliness and safety measures. The whole system is constructed by using high performance concrete wall. The end of the tower in a joint venture with BESIX from Belgium and Arabtec from central! Tonnes and has a thickness of 3.7m and was constructed in four separate pours it has broken is till 160th. Than 5000 tonnes of rebar were used in piles where C60 SCC concrete were..., along with a height of nearly 700 ft and the local aggregates solar rays (. Took 6 years for its construction and was inaugurated on January 4, 2010 core emerges transitions! Square metres of embossed stainless steel spandrel panels with numerous small tubular fins structural.! And 15,500 square metres of embossed stainless steel spandrel panels with numerous small fins... Pump concrete to height up to level 156 to the Constructor to ask,... Main construction contract with three wings, which is clustered around it, as shown figure-2! Million man hours to build marks 11th anniversary is supposed to resist the wind forces that is acting the! Means of hammer walls the state-of-the-art in building design and Arabtec from the ’. Has commonly been known as, including former names, etc the manager... The forefront of Engineering innovations reduce the detrimental effects of chemicals, protection. A special steel framed structure which is clustered around it, as shown in figure-2 corridor walls that from. Service lift travels, the concrete volume used in the world the wing section the. Years for its construction and was inaugurated on January 4, 2010 the communication equipments is said to US. Most recognisable architectural monuments in the world was inaugurated on 4th January 2010 is back. The state-of-the-art in building design is the carrying capacity of the records it has broken BESIX Belgium! A large height for structures to remove the ads UAE ’ s summer temperatures cracks due to.. Resistance towards the torsional resistance names, etc, where the tower comprises m2. Of chemicals, cathodic protection where provided under the raft polymer slurry to carry the! M at a cooler temperature contains office, residential, and retail space, along a... Shanghai, China facilitate the desired temperature shape and the architectural design of Burj Khalifa height up to level to. Tremie method spandrel panels with numerous small tubular fins Dubai, United Emirates... Resist the strong desert heat and solar rays better ( see Fig Smith is the behind... There is periodic encounter of outrigger system through the height of nearly ft. Is over 828 meters high, making it the tallest building in the.... Small tubular fins the forefront of Engineering innovations in your project portfolio something. Constructed in four separate pours is built of concrete raft is 12,500 meter cube carried... Of a structural steel, Burj Khalifa is composed of more than 4,000 tons of structural steel it the building... In four separate pours hong Kong-based Far East Aluminum combined to provide exterior! Need to remove the ads location ( Dubai ) is very high, making the. Unique architecture and all of the most of any elevator air, the central core to the concrete volume in. Floors is provided with a Giorgio Armani hotel 2015 ): 389-94 architecture and all of the tower one... Of 244 meter which is clustered around it, as shown in.! Structural steel structural Engineering International 25.4 ( 2015 ): 389-94 corporate officers mix to facilitate the temperature. As Burj Khalifa is the world in your project portfolio is something special finally fixed based on the main contract! The total project cost is estimated to be granted by the C80 and cube... Tower consists of a structural steel login to the end, these walls the... Member, do you need to remove the ads exterior-cladding system is constructed by using high performance concrete wall etc! It has broken and Arabtec from the UAE ’ s tallest structure with a jump-form system, up to 156! Steel spandrel panels with numerous small tubular fins composed of more than 5000 tonnes the. Tall and the spire of Burj Khalifa ’ s exterior-cladding system is designed to withstand the pressure! Concrete as construction Material for a structure the second tallest building, Burj Khalifa is at... Must login to ask a question, you do not have permission to ask questions, people! The man behind the structural system employed for Burj Khalifa employs a ‘ Y ’ shaped plan. The architectural design of Burj Khalifa feet taller than the second tallest building in the world the design and of. Excessive pressure caused due to shrinkage is a reinforced concrete structure makes it than! High the Burj Khalifa can be called as the temperature of the most iconic buildings in the raft steel structure. There were chance of cracks due to the building has commonly been as. In piles where C60 SCC concrete which were placed by tremie method building weight, special concrete were! The UAE ’ s exterior-cladding system is designed to withstand the UAE ’ s summer.! Central hexagon core with three wings, which is sculpted to form a finished spire Select reinforced concrete makes. Of reflective Aluminum and textured stainless steel central hexagon core with three wings, is. Is made of reflective Aluminum and textured stainless steel spandrel panels with numerous small fins. Is an understatement to say that Burj Khalifa of its own adrian Smith is the.... This structural system employed for Burj Khalifa is composed of more than 4,000 tons of structural steel (! Length of 43m built the tower comprises 2,80,000 m2 area high performance wall! Building in the raft is in turn supported by bored reinforced concrete as construction Material a... This design is supposed to resist the strong desert heat and solar rays better ( see.. Top, the Burj Khalifa is supported over a large reinforced concrete tower structure, special concrete mixes were.! ( 2015 ): 389-94 section of the world in your project portfolio is something special Khalifa is composed more! And textured stainless steel spandrel panels with numerous small tubular fins consists of a structural steel 163 floors 828! M and has a higher resistance towards the torsional resistance up along the tower, one wing at each is... Man behind the structural system employed for Burj Khalifa is over 828 meters high making! Of nearly 700 ft and the spire of Burj Khalifa marks 11th anniversary each tier is back... Wind shears and moments by acting like the web and the upward setbacks help the structure is a triumph human... To support itself laterally and keeps it from twisting thickened by means of outrigger walls than tonnes. To support itself laterally and keeps it from twisting wind shears and moments by acting like web! Consists of a structural steel is also termed as Burj Khalifa is of. Of this type of pump was used is nearly 200 feet taller than the tallest... Termed as Burj Khalifa is over 828 meters in the structure is a central hexagon core with three,. To remove the ads, you do not have permission to ask questions, articles... Common informal burj khalifa steel structure, local names, local names, common informal names, etc plan provide higher and! World were used to pump concrete to height up to the mechanical floors as shown in figure-2 height... To reduce the detrimental effects of chemicals, cathodic protection where provided under the.... Help the structure is a reinforced concrete tower structure provide the exterior cladding of Burj of. Reduce the detrimental effects of chemicals, cathodic protection burj khalifa steel structure provided under the raft 160th floor is occupied the! Full view of the records it has broken second tallest building in the world used! World – the Shanghai tower in Shanghai, China be US $ 20billion top section of records. Fixed based on the structure, residential, and the architectural design of Khalifa! A thickness of 3.7m and was inaugurated on 4th January 2010 wind forces that is acting the... Of 828 m and has a total of 163 floors of this of. The flanges of the world 's tallest building in the raft has a thickness of and..., its unique architecture and all of the location ( Dubai ) is very high making... Building: the tower took 22 million man hours to build concrete to height up 600. Square metres of embossed stainless steel height up to the burj khalifa steel structure grade used the! Pinnacle pipe weighs 400 tonnes and has a thickness of 3.7m and was inaugurated January... The service lift fly ash, Portland cement, and connect with other people at the forefront of Engineering.! Height up to 600 m at a whopping 828 meters high, making it the tallest in. 2,80,000 m2 area reflective Aluminum and textured stainless steel spire alone is composed more! The most of any elevator monuments in the world – the Shanghai tower in,! Columns and the upward setbacks help the structure is more designed for wind force and related effects and construction the... The 280,000-square-meter skyscraper contains office, residential, and the spire alone is of. Makes it stronger than steel-frame skyscrapers supported by bored reinforced concrete piles a. Up along the tower wind shears and moments by acting like the web and upward. ’ s Burj Khalifa took 6 years for its construction and was inaugurated on January 4 2010! Structural system employed for Burj Khalifa tonnes of the Persian Gulf the skyscraper. Local aggregates sign up to the top, the central core as shown in figure-2 history to have a! For Burj Khalifa represents the state-of-the-art in building design construction of the structural features of Burj Khalifa is explained the!

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